World Rabies Day 2019 for International awareness campaign
World Rabies Day is an international awareness campaign coordinated by the Global Alliance for Rabies Control, a non-profit organization with headquarters in the United States.
It is a United Nations Observance and has been endorsed by international human and veterinary health organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World Rabies Day takes place each year on September 28, the anniversary of the death of Louis Pasteur who, with the collaboration of his colleagues, developed the first efficacious rabies vaccine. World Rabies Day aims to raise awareness about the impact of rabies on humans and animals, provide information and advice on how to prevent the disease in at-risk communities, and support advocacy for increased efforts in rabies control.
The first World Rabies Day campaign took place on 8 September 2007 as a partnership between the Alliance for Rabies Control and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA, with the co-sponsorship of the World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health and the Pan American Health Organization [Briggs D, Hanlon CA. World Rabies Day: focusing attention on a neglected disease. Vet Rec. 2007 Sep 1;161(9):288-9.]. In 2009, after three World Rabies Days, the Global Alliance for Rabies Control estimated that rabies prevention and awareness events had taken place in over 100 countries, that nearly 100 million people worldwide had been educated about rabies and that nearly 3 million dogs had been vaccinated during events linked to the campaign.
A 2011 review by a network of international government agencies, academics, NGOs and vaccine manufacturers identified World Rabies Day as a useful tool to assist with rabies prevention, targeting at-risk communities, animal health workers, public health practitioners, governments, key opinion leaders and experts. In the years following the review, World Rabies Day has also been used by governments and international agencies as a day on which to announce policies, plans and progress on rabies elimination. For example, in 2013, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN, the World Health Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health first called for the global elimination of canine-mediated rabies in a joint statement released on World Rabies Day.
It has been included in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Rabies Elimination Strategy. At the first Pan-African Rabies Control Network meeting in 2015, the 33 African countries represented there recommended consideration of World Rabies Day as an opportunity for rabies advocacy. In the Philippines World Rabies Day has been observed at the national and local government levels since 2007, and is part of its National Rabies Prevention and Control Program.
World Rabies Day was created to be an inclusive day of education, awareness and action to encourage groups from all levels, the international to the local, to increase the spread of rabies prevention messages. Its objectives include raising global awareness about rabies and how to stop the disease, and educating people in rabies-endemic countries to prevent rabies.
It is centralized with an online platform where World Rabies Day events can be registered and resources can be downloaded to support and promote the outreach of educational messages about rabies in person, in print and online. The campaign also aims to bring together all relevant partners in an effort to address rabies prevention and control. Health workers, scientists and personnel in communities at risk of rabies are encouraged to access a bank of awareness resources through the website of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control for use in local educational initiatives.
As rabies is a disease that crosses borders, especially in wild animal populations, the campaign encourages the transnational collaboration of rabies control and prevention organizations. It also promotes a One Health approach to rabies prevention, part of a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans and animal health. The WRD logo (pictured above) represents the complexity of rabies, which can infect human beings, wildlife and domestic animals.
The advocacy work of the World Rabies Day campaign includes promoting government involvement in rabies prevention and control programs, increasing the vaccination coverage of pets and community dogs, and improving the educational awareness of how to prevent rabies in all levels of society. It also promotes the utilization of an integrated model of disease management, the Blueprint for Rabies Prevention. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN considers that World Rabies Day plays an important role in advocating the prevention and control of rabies among policy makers, especially in countries where rabies is still neglected.
Current rabies vaccine status is licensed rabies vaccines for human use are based on inactivated purified rabies virus grown either in tissue culture or in embryonated duck or chicken eggs. Nerve-tissue grown vaccines, which are less costly but are also less immunogenic and, even more importantly, can have serious side-effects, are no longer recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and their use has largely been discontinued.
Rabies vaccines can be given intramuscularly (IM) or at a 5–10-fold lower dose intradermally (ID). A number of different regimens are approved for use in humans. For PrEP the vaccine is given typically three times on days 0, 7, and 21 or 28. Efforts are underway to change this to a two times point 2-dose regimen for which individuals are vaccinated into two sites on days 0 and 7. After exposure to a rabid animal, previously vaccinated individuals need to receive a boost; they do not require treatment with RIG.
Unvaccinated individuals exposed to a rabid animal should receive, as soon as possible, thorough wound cleaning. Depending on the severity of exposure the wound should be infiltrated with RIG used at 20 mg/kg for human serum and 40 mg/kg for equine serum. Left-over serum that cannot be infiltrated into the wound due to space limitations should not be injected into a distant site. Individuals should then start vaccination. The vaccine can be given IM into one site on days 0, 3, and 7 followed by a fourth dose anytime between days 14–28. As an alternative IM regimen, the vaccine can be given to two sites on days 0 and 3 followed by one site injections on days 7 and 21. ID immunization should be given into two sites on days 0, 3, and 7.
As already pointed out, egg- or tissue culture-grown rabies vaccines are safe, and if given correctly, highly effective in preventing disease and death. Nevertheless, they are costly. In the US PEP costs upwards of $3,000 and can cost as much as $40,000. It is far less expensive in developing countries where the vaccine, if given ID, costs about $10–15 while equine RIG for a 60 kg human would add another $20. Further costs through miscellaneous medical supplies, fees for health care providers, travel, and loss of wages further increases the overall expense, which in developing countries commonly exceeds the weekly or even monthly income of a family.
The outcome, avoidance of PEP upon exposure to a rabid animal, is predictable and fatal.
ne could envision the development of separate vaccines for rabies PEP and PrEP as they have different goals. A vaccine for PEP needs to induce VNAs as fast as possible to prevent rabies virus from spreading into the central nervous system. A PrEP vaccine on the other hand should induce sustained VNA titers and robust memory B and CD4+ T helper cell responses that allow for rapid VNA recall after a boost. Any type of new rabies vaccine, whether it is used for PEP, PrEP, or both, would have to be as safe and efficacious as our current vaccines.
As rabies is fatal in more than 99.9% of humans that develop the disease, 80–90% vaccine efficacy, which is viewed as adequate for many of our current vaccines, such as influenza vaccines, which in some years are effective in less than 50% of recipients, is not acceptable for a rabies vaccine. Many vaccines work well in some people but not in others. Some vaccines show striking regional differences, for example the high efficacy rotavirus vaccines show in the US and Europe, is not being recapitulated in Africa. The variability in human immune responses to vaccines is not fully understood and it is assumed that both genetic and environmental factors, including the microbiome and concurrent infectious disease burden, play a role. Needless to say, immune responses to a new rabies vaccine would have to be consistent throughout different human populations.
A new rabies vaccine would have to cost less than currently licensed vaccines. Low cost is especially crucial for a PrEP rabies vaccine, which would need to cost no more than $1–3 in order to be cost-neutral to the alternative of treating exposed individuals with PEP. This takes into account that even after PrEP, a boost should be administered after exposure to a rabid animal. It does not take into account that cost-neutrality is influenced by the incidence of exposure to potentially rabid animals, which varies from country to country and even from region to region. For example, Kenya reported from 2002 to 2012 336 dog bites/100,000 persons, in 2008 and 2009 Iran reported ~ 600 dog bites/100,000 individuals. In Africa and Asia, the incidence of exposure to rabies virus through bites or licks by rabid dogs seems to be especially high in travelers with an estimated incidence of 0.4%.
Novel PrEP rabies vaccines should induce protective VNA titers after a single immunization. Current rabies vaccines stimulate long-lasting B cell memory; anamnestic responses have been observed for more than a decade following immunization.
The same would be expected of a new PrEP vaccine although admittedly such studies would have to be conducted post-licensure. A new PEP rabies vaccine should be more immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies faster and at higher levels to reduce the number of vaccine doses preferentially to one and the need for RIG. In either case new rabies vaccines to facilitate their use in developing countries would have to be formulated so that they are stable at ambient temperatures. Production and purification procedures should be simple to eventually allow for their local production in less developed countries.
Novel vaccine delivery methods such as biodegradable ‘bio-needles’ based on silicon or starch polymers might not only increase thermostability of the vaccine but also reduce cost by avoiding the use of syringes, needles, and vials, and, as was shown with silicon microneedles that were tested with an inactivated influenza virus vaccine in mice, may even increase immunogenicity.
The use of controlled release antigen delivery systems is being explored to allow for single immunization regimens, in which the vaccine is release over an extended period of time or at predefined intervals to circumvent the need for booster immunizations. Such methods still phase technical challenges and have thus far neither reached clinical testing for any vaccine nor have they been explored for rabies vaccines.
If you still want to learn more about Rabies Vaccine and HRIG during your visit in Bali, you can go and contact Hydro Medical Bali. They will provide you the information that you needed for Rabies Vaccine and HRIG. Also, they will provide you the vaccine when you needed it with the handling of their professional health care.
7 Happiest Country Music Hits
Did you know that September 17 is the International Country Music Day?
Well, if you didn’t, now you do. Now, if you’re coming from the South of America, then, chance is, you have playlists of Country Music for every kind of occasions in your phone. However, for the rest of the world, people might be wondering what exactly a Country Music is (other than the essentially strong imagery of young men in plaids and cowboy hats riding their horses alongside lush green pastures and the occasional young maidens carrying jugs of fresh milk around the farm). So what is Country Music, really?
Well, according to our wonderful friends on Wikipedia, “Country music, also known as country and western (or simply country), and hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as American folk music (especially Appalachian folk and Western music) and blues. Country music often consists of ballads and dance tunes with generally simple forms, folk lyrics, and harmonies mostly accompanied by string instruments such as banjos, electric and acoustic guitars, steel guitars (such as pedal steels and dobros), and fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history.
The term country music is used today to describe many styles and subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs, Irish and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, and the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.”
Country singers have seen generations after generations rise and fall, and a detailed notes on all six generations of Country Music singers will be sufficient for a whole other article. Okay, now that we’re on the same page on what Country Music is, it’s time for us to share with you seven happiest Country Music songs that can boost your mood in an instant. Let’s start from the last song on the list and move upward, just like our old pals used to do on MTV (if you watched them all the time during the 90s all through the early years of 2000s, then you know we’re the same age).
7. Why Don’t We Just Dance – Josh Turner
At number seven we have Why Don’t Get Just Dance by Josh Turner; which was a big hit for Turner. He turned life around from all the bad things that were going on at the time and made one of the best country songs of all time.
- There’s Your Trouble – Dixie Chicks
Up next, The Dixie Chicks came out with some really great songs in their early days. It was a bright and happy time in country music and these girls knew how to have some fun with life. The melody in this song is great and … happy.
- I’m Gonna Miss Her – Brad Paisley
At number 5 is I’m Gonna Miss Her by Brad Paisley. We know, we know; the title could throw you off at first because you think it’s about leaving. Well, technically it is, but the narrator in the song is happy because now he gets to fish.. which is a fun thing to do, is it not?
- Check Yes Or No – George Strait
Moving on to number four, now we have one of just a few songs that have the power to make you smile from the very first note. This story song from George Strait has been a country classic for 20 years now and I’m sure it will stay for another 20.
- Last Dollar (Fly Away) – Tim McGraw
Closing in to the number one is Tim McGraw’s Last Dollar. It’s almost like Tim McGraw cheated when he released this song. There is nothing like it on country radio at all. It’s the happiest song of all time perhaps. Big Kenny of Big & Rich wrote it when he was down to his last dollar. Well, if you can still be happy with next to no money, then you know you got a beautiful life.
- It’s A Great Day To Be Alive – Travis Tritt
On the runner up position is a great song by Travis Tritt, who can be a little rough around the edges, but shows his happy side with this song. It became one of the biggest hits of his career and we’re pretty sure he flashes that smile every time he plays it today.
- Life’s A Dance – John Michael Montgomery
Of all the hits John Michael Montgomery had back in the ’90s this one seems to have the most staying power. There are ups and downs in life, but if you simply try to have a few more ups than downs you’ll do just fine. There is just something about this catchy tune that makes you feel the urge to sing and dance along. If that doesn’t make you smile I don’t know what will.
There you are, seven happiest country songs that you can try to listen to when you need a mood booster. With their genuine and honest lyrics, we believe you might find yourself enjoying the genre and start viewing life from a different perspective. Don’t forget to do enjoyable things and don’t let the pressure of a holiday weigh you down, but when all precautionary measures have been done and you still find yourself getting anxiety attack while you were here, then we welcome you to our body and soul clinic; in which our trusted and professional therapists are ready to help you be the best version of yourself back again. Have a good day!
If you were paying attention, there was something funny in Google’s look on this September 8th… An image with a Star Trek theme adorns Google’s writing above its search bar…
The Star Trek story illustrates the adventures of humans and aliens who joined Starfleet, a peace-loving group that lives in space and also a space organization called the United Federation of Planets, a kind of UN version of space life, so imagined by Gene Rodenberry.
The initial idea that was initiated by Gene Rodenberry in 1963 was about how human life 200 years in the future. This best describes the Star Trek story. Although the Star Trek story was originally told to go against the flow of problems around the 60s, but this concept eventually sold well in the international market until the late 1970s.
Now from that brief history, Star Trek developed into a product that sells well in the American and International markets. Even TVRI, the national channel television in Indonesia had aired it.
Back on topic, what are you exactly doing to celebrate the Star Trek Day? The best and easiest way to celebrate Star Trek Day is simply taking the time to marathon the original series. Take care on the first episode, it is easily rated as one of the spookiest and unnerving of all episodes. But if you wish to know about the walkthrough of where-should-I-begin, let us guide you. Here is a quick guide.
The Original Series (TOS)
The first Star Trek series, better known today as Star Trek: The Original Series, first aired in the United States in 1966. Tells of the adventures of the USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) spacecraft with crew captain James T. Kirk (played by William Shatner), Spock commander from planet Vulcan (Leonard Nimoy), doctor Leonard McCoy (DeForest Kelley) and others. The series was first broadcast less well-known and after three years was finally cancelled.
Strangely, even after being cancelled the popularity of this series soared. Because of high production costs, NBC television studios then sold broadcast rights to local stations. This is where Star Trek experienced a revival and many people became loyal fans.
The Animated Series
After that in 1973 Star Trek returned in the form of animation or cartoons. Still with the same characters and voiced by the original actors, the series is named Star Trek: The Animated Series and only lasts for two years.
In 1978 there were plans to revive this television series. Captain Kirk will again be played by Shatner in the Star Trek: Phase II series, but Nimoy refuses to return as Spock, so a replacement is found to play another Vulcan character, Xon (David Gautreaux). Another additional character is planned, Ilia from planet Delta (Persis Khambatta).
Before this plan could be realized, George Lucas launched the film Star Wars and exploded as a huge success around the world. The Star Trek producer then slams the wheel and processes the scenario for the television series to become a feature film called Star Trek I: The Motion Picture.
In this movie, Gautreaux got a small role and Khambatta continued to play Ilia. All the main actors from the television film again played their respective roles, including Nimoy. The film also achieved success at the box office and continued with the following films which until now (2013) had twelve (including the first film). See Widescreen Film.
The Next Generation (TNG)
In addition, since 1987, other Star Trek series have also been made, starring different crews. Star Trek: The Next Generation tells about the crew of Enterprise (NCC-1701-D) with Captain Jean-Luc Picard (Patrick Stewart) and Commander William Riker (Jonathan Frakes). The time is about a century after the first series. This series lasted for seven years.
Deep Space Nine
Star Trek: Deep Space Nine began in 1993 and tells a space station led by commander (and later captain) Benjamin Sisko (Brooks Avery). This station is located near the Bajor planet and a wormhole that leads to the gamma quadrant (ie the other quarters of the Milky Way galaxy – illustrated that the earth is located in the alpha quadrant). As a result, many alien species stop by and conflicts occur between them. Like its predecessor, this series was also closed after seven years.
Star Trek: Voyager, as the name suggests, describes the journey of the USS Voyager spacecraft (NCC-74656) with captain Kathryn Janeway (Kate Mulgrew) who was thrown into the delta quadrant (ie the quarters of other parts of the Milky Way galaxy) by an alien force and looking for a way back to earth. This series began in 1995 and closed seven years later. The 5th series of the Star Trek franchise continues the spirit of exploration and the discovery of new values that began in ST: TOS. One of the values and order of the old society that was broken down was the appointment of a woman to be the captain of a ship, something as taboo as the racial-kissing scene between Captain Kirk (a white man) and Lieutenant Uhura (a black woman) in the 1960s in one of the ST: TOS episodes.
The last series produced was Star Trek: Enterprise (originally referred to as Enterprise only), which tells the adventure of the Enterprise NX-01 aircraft under the leadership of Captain Jonathan Archer (Scott Bakula). This series is the first series prequel, with a background of about a century before.
Racial Equality Issues behind the Movie
The Star Trek series was showed in the 60’s in The United States which had a history of racial struggles. Slavery had been legal in the United States for much of its history as people were able to buy, sell, and dispose of others as if they were property. The abolition of slavery was one of the aims accomplished through the American Civil War.
Even after the war, though, racism flourished. Segregation was practiced in many locations throughout the first half of the 20th century as people were denied basic rights.
This reached a head in the 1960s as the civil rights movement gained ground and as white supremacist groups fought back. In 1963, the bombing of an African American Church in Birmingham, Alabama left four schoolgirls dead and several others injured. In 1965, the killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson by a state trooper during a peaceful protest drew attention to the struggle for equality. Jackson’s death inspired the three Selma to Montgomery marches of that same year.
When those marches were met with violent opposition from law enforcement as well as civilians, the nation was shocked by the images of brutality. Just five months later, President Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Less than three years after that, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. While the primary racial divide was between white and black Americans, other minorities were also repressed.
This was the backdrop for many Star Trek episodes. In an era when racism was rampant, Star Trek featured a racially mixed crew. Prominent bridge officers included Lieutenant Uhura as a communications officer of African descent and Lieutenant Sulu as an Asian helmsman. Having cast members in such important roles was revolutionary for the time.
Star Trek promotes equality by not saying much of anything. Just look at the original crew. Yes, you have the charismatic and handsome Captain Kirk, but you also have Spock (an alien), Sulu (Asian) Chekov (A Russian during the Cold War), Nurse Chapel (female), and Uhura (Black Female). They didn’t say anything about race, they just worked together as a team of professionals in an era when segregation and tensions between races was exceptionally high and most Americans were fearful of the Russians. Yet this show had them all working together and solving problems in ways that were unheard of at the time.
The Next Generation did the same thing. The Chief Engineer was black, the original Security Chief was first a woman and then a Klingon (originally an enemy of the original crew), and the Doctor was a woman. They were, again, equals. No one called out race as a major point of contention amid the crews, preferring instead to work together to solve the problems they faced rather than create new ones. And that had a huge impact on people.
Star Trek did what most shows and books at the time simply pat themselves on the back for but never directly included. It was all too common to have the white lead say “We’ve learned from the past mistakes” and never show it. Instead, Trek simply said “Here’s a problem, and I need these professionals to get to work. Yes, I’m aware our Chief Engineer is black, what about it?”
Ignore their different characteristics, like Kirk’s charm, or Sulu’s coolness, or Spock’s ruthless yet likeable logic. Take them at face value, if even for a bit. Kirk’s a white male, Sulu’s an Asian male, Chekov was a Russian male, Uhura’s African American female, and Spock is, well… Spock.
This very crew setup suggests many things. For one, race doesn’t matter on the Enterprise. In an age where African Americans and Asians were discriminated against simply by their skin color, Star Trek defied the status quo. By casting them, Star Trek showed a future where people of all races could work together with no or little issues. The crew didn’t care that Uhura was black, or Sulu was Asian, they valued them because of their talents, skills, and experience. I mean, Chekov was Russian, and this aired during the Cold War. Which meant the US was terrified of the Russians? In the reboots, Sulu is even gay, too. That was unexpected.
TNG followed up on that, elaborating a bit further. The Chief Engineer, Geordi, was black, but displayed his value to the crew several times. Data was an android, and that, like race, would open up a whole alley of discrimination simply because he wasn’t a biological being. The ship’s doctor was a woman, as was the ship’s therapist, and the tactical officer was even a Klingon, kind of like the more distant equivalent of Chekov. They, like the TOS crew, had put aside racial and gender bias and evaluated the crew members based on their ability to do what they were tasked to do.
Unfortunately, racism and gender bias hadn’t fully gone away. Commander Hobson of the Sutherland believed Data wouldn’t a good captain simply because he was an android, an example of racism. The world, even 51 years after the Civil Rights Act, is still gripped in the throes of racism and bias. This election cycle, we now have a President-elect who campaigned about shutting Muslims out of the country because of his irrational fear of terrorists, and because they were Muslim.
The point is, Star Trek pioneered the advancement of humanity towards a more equal world, though said world is not even close to what Roddenberry imagined. In the face of all this hate and vile, remember what made Star Trek ground-breaking, tolerance.
Star Trek series become so popular because of their theme which has various viewpoints; culture, the value of loyalty, arbitrariness, imperialism, war equipment, peace, religion, racism, human rights, feminism, and certainly technology, embracing the science, sexuality and gender, and so on… These made Star Trek become one of the most saleable series of all time.
So, why don’t we join and celebrates the positive vibes which comes along with the movies all at once? Let’s put together some themed snacks and get yourself ready to do a marathon movie! There is no better way to get in the spirit of Star Trek Day!
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world.
It is also the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent.
Other flavoring agents such as grit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.
Beer is one of the most popular drinks. Thousands or even millions of people in the world have drunk it. In addition, interest in craft beers is growing more each day, as breweries and local microbreweries keep cropping up. With all this interest in beer, many people are asking the question. Then does beer cause discoloration of teeth? But apparently not all types can cause tooth discoloration, and here are some types of beer and the risk of tooth discoloration
Light Beers is a beer (usually a Pilsner) that is reduced in alcohol content or in calories compared to regular beers. Light beers may be chosen by beer drinkers who wish to manage their alcohol consumption or their calorie intake. However, they are sometimes criticised for being less flavourful than full-strength beers, or for tasting or actually being watered down.
The good news is that light-colored beers, such as Budweiser or Coors, will probably not stain your teeth. Also, a cold light beer is often more refreshing during the hot summer months than a heavier, dark beer anyway.
Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted barley. In contrast, heavier, darker-colored beers such as Guinness, many of which are crafted with black patent malt or roasted barley, may indeed stain the teeth — especially if you drink these types of beers regularly.
To help avoid tooth discoloration, you can try drinking your dark beer with a straw. If that sounds silly, at least rinse out your mouth after you drink a dark beer; or, if you can, brush your teeth.
Improving the Look of Beer-Stained Teeth
If you cannot give up your favorite dark-colored beers or already have visibly stained teeth, you can follow some ways to naturally whiten your teeth.
Baking soda has natural whitening properties, which is why it’s a popular ingredient in commercial toothpaste. It’s a mild abrasive that can help scrub away surface stains on teeth. Additionally, baking soda creates an alkaline environment in your mouth, which prevents bacteria from growing. This is not a remedy that will whiten your teeth overnight, but you should notice a difference in the appearance of your teeth over time. Science has not yet proven that brushing with plain baking soda will whiten your teeth, but several studies show that toothpaste with baking soda has a significant whitening effect.
One study found that toothpastes containing baking soda were significantly more effective at removing yellow stains from teeth than standard toothpastes without baking soda. The higher the concentration of baking soda, the greater the effect. Furthermore, a review of five studies found that toothpastes containing baking soda removed plaque from teeth more effectively than non-baking soda toothpastes.
To use this remedy, mix 1 teaspoon of baking soda with 2 teaspoons of water and brush your teeth with the paste. You can do this a few times per week. You can buy baking soda at a grocery store or find it online.
Apple cider vinegar has been used for centuries as a disinfectant and natural cleaning product. Acetic acid, which is the main active ingredient in apple cider vinegar, effectively kills bacteria.
The antibacterial property of vinegar is what makes it useful for cleaning your mouth and whitening your teeth. One study performed on cow teeth found that apple cider vinegar does have a bleaching effect on teeth. However, they also found that vinegar may soften the teeth.
The acetic acid in vinegar has the potential to erode the enamel on your teeth. For this reason, you should not use apple cider vinegar every day. You should also limit the amount of time that apple cider vinegar is in contact with your teeth. To use it as a mouthwash, dilute it with water and swish it around in your mouth for several minutes. Make sure to rinse your mouth with plain water afterwards.
- Use Fruits and Vegetables
A diet high in fruits and vegetables may be good for both your body and your teeth. While they’re no substitute for brushing your teeth, crunchy, raw fruits and vegetables can help rub plaque away as you chew. In particular, strawberries and pineapple are two fruits that have been claimed to help whiten your teeth.
Whitening your teeth with a strawberry and baking soda mixture is a natural remedy that has been made popular by celebrities. Proponents of this method claim that the malic acid found in strawberries will remove discoloration on your teeth, while the baking soda will buff away stains. However, this remedy has not been completely backed up by science.
While strawberries may help exfoliate your teeth and make them appear whiter, they are unlikely to penetrate the stains on your teeth. A recent study found that a strawberry and baking soda mixture produced very little color change in teeth, compared to commercial whitening products.
If you decide to give this method a try, limit its use to a few times per week. Despite studies showing that a strawberry and baking soda paste had a minimal effect on tooth enamel, excessive use could cause damage. To use this remedy, smash up a fresh strawberry, combine it with baking soda and brush the mixture on your teeth.
Some claim that pineapple can whiten teeth. A study found that a toothpaste containing bromelain, an enzyme found in pineapples, was significantly more effective at removing tooth stains than a standard toothpaste However, there is no evidence that eating pineapples produces the same effect.
Oil pulling is a traditional Indian folk remedy meant to improve oral hygiene and remove toxins from the body. The practice involves swishing oil around in your mouth to remove bacteria, which can turn into plaque and cause your teeth to look yellow. Traditionally, Indians used sunflower or sesame oil for oil pulling, but any oil will work. Coconut oil is a popular choice because it has a pleasant taste and offers many additional health benefits. Coconut oil is also high in lauric acid, which is known for its ability to reduce inflammation and kill bacteria.
A few studies have shown that daily oil pulling effectively reduces bacteria in the mouth, along with plaque and gingivitis Streptococcus mutans is one of the primary types of bacteria in the mouth that cause plaque and gingivitis. One study found that daily swishing with sesame oil significantly reduced Streptococcus mutans in saliva in as little as one week Unfortunately, there are no scientific studies to prove that oil pulling whitens your teeth. However, it’s a safe practice and definitely worth a try. Many people claim their teeth are whiter and brighter after regular oil pulling. To oil pull, put 1 tablespoon of coconut oil in your mouth and push and pull the oil through your teeth. Coconut oil is solid at room temperature, so you may need to wait a few seconds for it to melt. Continue the oil pulling for a full 15–20 minutes.
Be sure to spit the coconut oil into a toilet or trash can, as it could return to solid form once in your drain pipes and cause a clog. Unlike many other tooth whitening methods, coconut oil pulling does not expose your teeth to acid or other ingredients that erode the enamel. This means it is safe to do daily.
Hydrogen peroxide is a natural bleaching agent that also kills bacteria in your mouth. In fact, people have been using hydrogen peroxide for years to disinfect wounds because of its ability to kill bacteria.
Many commercial whitening products contain hydrogen peroxide, although at a much higher concentration than you will use. Unfortunately, there aren’t any studies to show the effects of rinsing or brushing with hydrogen peroxide alone, but several studies have analyzed commercial toothpastes containing peroxide. One study found that a toothpaste containing baking soda and 1% hydrogen peroxide led to significantly whiter teeth. Another study found that brushing with a commercial toothpaste containing baking soda and peroxide twice per day led to 62% whiter teeth in six weeks.
However, there are some questions regarding the safety of hydrogen peroxide. While heavily diluted concentrations appear safe, strong concentrations or overuse can cause gum irritation and tooth sensitivity. There’s also concern that high doses may cause cancer, but this has not been proven. One way to use hydrogen peroxide is as a mouthwash before you brush your teeth. Make sure you are using a 1.5% or 3% solution to avoid side effects. The most common concentration of hydrogen peroxide at the drugstore is a 3% solution.
You can easily dilute this concentration to 1.5% by mixing equal parts peroxide and water. Another way to use hydrogen peroxide is by mixing it with baking soda to make a toothpaste. Combine 2 teaspoons of hydrogen peroxide with 1 teaspoon of baking soda and gently brush your teeth with the mixture. Limit the use of this homemade paste to a few times per week, as overuse can erode your tooth enamel.
What happens if there will be no longer life in the wild in our beloved earth? Of course, it is very difficult to imagine, at least if we don’t see it for ourselves. To give an idea of how quiet the world is without the wildlife in it, Greenpeace, the most popular NGO focusing environment conservation released a video a few days containing global biodiversity, with the help of the world’s cartoon film producers at Disney. In this one and a half minute video, they try to describe the emptiness of the Earth if this world does not have any wild animals that adorn the habitat in it. Even though it seems that in reality, the animals in Africa are still exist until now, this video gives a very clear picture of what African savannahs and jungles would look like if they do not have inhabitants.
A study in 2010 found that the population of large mammals in Africa had shrunk by 59% over the past 40 years. Last year around 22,000 to 35,000 African elephants were killed by poachers, while the African rhino hunting rate reached its highest point. How about Simba the Lion King? Africa’s own lion population has fallen by around 70% since 1960. But that does not mean that hopes have been closed to wildlife in Africa, there are still a number of areas and national parks where a number of major species remain safe. But much needs to be done to reduce the loss of biodiversity, stabilize populations, and relive this region. Not only Africa, but also every continent, if we still want to see wild life on this Earth.
Regarding this issue, many environment and animal’s enthusiasts are there to be conservative about the wildlife. There are a number of things related to this problem, such as direct observation of wildlife, or supportive actions like socialization to sensitize and educate the public about the importance of advocating the integrity of wildlife. For them, the wildlife with its inhabitants is a counterweight to the cycle of life. That is what Mufasa said J
Since wildlife relies on stable habitat, understanding conservation and preservation is important. Developing strategies helps to maintain existing habitats and repair or replace those that have been destroyed. These strategies are especially important when a decline in a species is detected. Around the world, facilities and organizations will present seminars and educational programs. Additionally, podcasts and documentaries alert us to the changing conditions for various species around the world. Some may be as close as your own back yard. From the sky to the depths of the ocean, wildlife is surrounds us.
Anyway, if you are concern about this topic or consider yourself as animal lover or environment conservative, you need to make a move by participating and supporting all the efforts that has been done until now about the conservation of wildlife. At least, mark this date on your calendar, every 4th September, the National Wildlife Day. Founded in 2006 by animal behaviourist Colleen Paige, National Wildlife Day aims to raise awareness for endangered species around the world. Paige was the brains behind several other animal-themed holidays, including National Dog Day and National Cat Day, as well.
You probably wondering why there is this event? There is one heart-warming reason behind it. Celebrating National Wildlife Day is actually twice a year, it is February 22nd and September 4th. It might sound a bit strange, but this biannual holiday is no accident. Not only does it double the nationwide effort to protect endangered animals, but the dates themselves also have an incredibly touching story. Back in the early 2000s, Australian conservationist Steve Irwin was a household name thanks to his TV show The Crocodile Hunter, a documentary series hosted by the fearless wildlife expert and his wife, Terri. Irwin was filming a new episode near Australia’s Great Barrier Reef on September 4, 2006, when a startled stingray stung him in the heart and killed him.
Paige then founded National Wildlife Day shortly after Irwin passed, choosing to mark the occasion on September 4th in his honour. Yet one day was simply not enough to celebrate the life’s work of the beloved Crocodile Hunter. February 22nd, Steve Irwin’s birthday, was recently added as the second National Wildlife Day of the year. In Irwin’s memory, spend the next National Wildlife Day learning more about endangered species and conservation efforts, donating to your favourite wildlife organization, or visiting a local zoo.
And if you happened to be in Bali, today is the perfect day to go to the zoo! Bali Zoo Park is one of the best local zoo in Bali. Located on Jalan Singapadu, Gianyar makes Bali Zoo very easy to reach from famous spots in Bali. If you are from Kuta area, it is about an hour normally with a car. From Ubud, it only takes about 15 minutes. Bali zoo is the first and only zoological park is a wondrous place where you can learn the behaviour of over 500 rare and exotic animals in a lush, tropical environment. A park where you can participate in fascinating animal adventure activities, some of which are unique experiences of their kind in Indonesia. One of the unique activities that you can do is you having a breakfast with the orang utan or the elephants.
Since the opening in 2002, Bali Zoo has extended its range of features in addition to its existing daily programs. One of the unique offerings is a regular night attraction package that lets you observe the hundreds of animals after dusk. ‘Night at The Zoo’ introduces you to Bali Zoo’s nocturnal animals, and is usually held twice a week from 6pm onwards, usually concluded by an exciting fire dance performance. Even so, by day, the zoo is a place where families and children can meet the various animals in their secure enclosures. These include Sumatran tigers, white tigers, lions, babirusa, deer, orangutans, Komodo dragons, crocodiles, iguanas, turtles, snakes, Bali starlings, cassowaries, peacocks and many other exotic creatures.
Besides feeding the animals, the zoo staff will also help to take a photo for you or assist in taking one with your own camera. All of the inhabitants are fully cared for by the resident veterinarian.
When you’re feeling peckish, there are dining facilities at the zoo that include the Elephant View Restaurant. It serves Asian and is in the middle of the zoo with an open-air view of the elephant trail and gardens. The Okavango Restaurant, near the entrance, is where you can enjoy western selections with African lions in view through a glass enclosure.
There are also activities outside the zoo grounds; an interesting village trek, which takes you on a trek through forests, lush rice paddies, rushing rivers, and see rural Balinese village life at large. The 2-hour trek also includes a visit to the temple’s area as well as stopovers to the local communities of gold, silversmiths and stone carvers.
Bali Zoo is wheelchair-friendly, and the staff members are ready to assist visitors with disabilities. You can take home some good memories of Bali Zoo with special merchandise such as photo frames, T-shirts, mugs, egg paintings and many other interesting handicrafts are available at the souvenir shop inside the zoo and at the restaurants.
Finally, National Wildlife Day reminds us that the animals of the world are a precious resource, and of the many zoos, sanctuaries, conservatories, and organizations that work together every year to help preserve them for future generations. If we don’t start taking care of them now, we’re going to lose them. Once an animal has gone extinct, they’re lost forever to future generations, it’s our responsibility not to let that happen.
It is important for humans to maintain the balance of the nature. By maintaining the balance of the nature around the earth, it will return to its health. Earth has the power to heal itself but however, if it is continuously damaged, then there is no time for the earth to heal itself. Some large countries have made efforts to reduce damage to the earth. one of them is by agreeing to the carbon tax. A carbon tax is money a country must spend based on how much carbon it spends every year. The tax money will be used to improve damaged natural conditions.
The need to maintain balance, social, natural and surrounding life arrangements, such as animals or wild animals. Not only humans need to be considered, but nature, forests, and life are unity that is adrift to be maintained, and balanced. So, we must remember to be always maintain the balance of the nature, by paying attention, maintaining, preserving it actively, as an effort to participate in loving the nature.
So, mark your calendars, animal lovers and environment enthusiasts across the country to celebrate National Wildlife Day, every September and February, with a wide range of earth-friendly activities, from visiting the local zoos to reading up on the wild animal species you didn’t know were endangered. Because It is the time to care about our mother earth!