Bali (/’ba:li) is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. Located east of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighboring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan.

The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. Bali is the only Hindu-majority province in Indonesia, with 83.5% of the population adhering to Balinese Hinduism. Bali is Indonesia’s main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy.

It is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking, and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali. Other international events held in Bali include the Miss World 2013 and 2018 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. In March 2017, TripAdvisor named Bali as the world’s top destination in its Traveller’s Choice award.

Bali was inhabited around 2000 BCE by Austronesian people who migrated originally from the island of Taiwan to Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, Malaysia, the Philippines and Oceania.

Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island’s west. Bali is the home of the Subak irrigation system, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is also home to a unified confederation of kingdoms composed of 10 traditional royal Balinese houses, each house ruling a specific geographic area. The confederation is the successor of the Bali Kingdom. The royal houses are not recognised by the government of Indonesia; however, they originated before Dutch colonisation.

When we talk about Bali we cannot talk without mentioning tourist destination in Bali. Bali has so many natural attractions that you can go to. Not only the beaches, for example, a number of waterfalls were widespread in several districts. Many tourists who come to Bali take the time to visit the waterfall.

One of them is Sangsang Waterfall in Bangli Regency. With the beauty of its nature, this waterfall is a suitable place for relaxation. Come on, get to know this waterfall before you visit it! Bangli is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. It has an area of 520.81 km2 and population of 197,210 (2004). Its regency seat is Bangli. Up till 1907, Bangli was one of the nine kingdoms of Bali.

The capital has a famous Hindu temple, the Pura Kehen, which dates from the 11th century. Bangli also has one village, lies surround a hill, Demulih. The northern part of the district includes the main road to the north coast passing through Kintamani and around the crater in which Gunung Batur sits.

From the Demulih hill, Bali Island, particularly its southern part can be seen – Kuta, Nusa Dua, Gianyar and a part of Klungkung. Bangli is the only regency in Bali which is landlocked. Bangli Regency is the only regency in Bali with no sea area. This regency is home to the mountain lakes and water sources that make Bali so fertile.

Numerous small villages are scattered across a landscape of rice terraces, lush valleys and luxuriant forests. It covers 520.81 square km of land and is divided into 4 sub-districts: Kintamani, Susut, Tembuku, and Bangli with Bangli as the capital city. Based on the statistics in June 2001, total population in Bangli Regency is 197.210 people with development priority emphasized in agriculture, tourism, and crafting industry.

Situated at 400 m above sea level, the mountain ranges of northern Bangli are the biggest producers of bamboos in Bali. Most of traditional buildings in Bali use bamboos from Bangli as materials for the roof. In the traditional buildings in the mountain ranges of Bangli, the bamboo is used as the roof cover. Crafting / Diligence of Bamboo is such a small industry in Regency of Bangli represent the pre-eminent commodity with local raw material that still enough available. Due to the history of administration in Bali during the monarchy system, Bangli had once taken an important part between the end of the 10th century and the beginning of the 11th century, or during the reign of the King Udayana from the Warmadewa dynasty.

Archaeological remains stored in Pura Bukit Panulisan in northern Kintamani can tell us a story of the Bali’s history. The lifestyle and the dialect of the people living in the mountain ranges of Kintamani show that it is not only inscriptions which can prove important role of Bangli in the past but also living evidences following the good implementation of its traditional lifestyle. Beside its cool weather and breathtaking views of the wildlife around the Batur Lake, various historical remains well preserved in the regency are another supporting tourism potential of Bangli. Various accommodation facilities and restaurants have been built.

There are tourism destinations in Bangli, beside Kintamani, there is ukit Jati, Taman Bali Raja, Kuning Waterfall, Kehen Temple, Eco Tourism, Penglipuran Traditional Village, Penglipuran Heroes Monumen, Bamboo Forest, Pengotan Traditional Village, Penelokan Tourist Resort, The Vulcano Museum of Mount Batur, Toyo Bungkah, Kedisan Village, Terunyan Village, Pancering Jagat Temple, Batur Temple, Pucak Penulisan Temple, Catur Kintamani Agrotourism, Dalem Balingkang Temple, Pantunan, Panorama of Puncaksari Temple, Demulih hill and many more.

One of the tourist destination in Bangli regency is Sangsang Waterfall. Sangsang Waterfall is a beautiful waterfall located in Taman Bali Village, Bangli District, Bangli Regency. Sangsang Waterfall is about 35km from Denpasar City or about 1 hour.

When driving to the location of the waterfall, you will pass a bridge. This bridge is an easy marker to get to the location. After arriving near the area, you can park your vehicle in the parking lot provided. After that, walk towards Sangsang Waterfall. Prepare yourself to walk about 5km to the location of the waterfall. Sangsang Waterfall location is in the middle of the forest. Access to the location via a path in the middle of the forest, climbing ravines and shrubs that make your trekking trip to Sangsang Waterfall quite impressive.

This waterfall gets the name “hidden waterfall” because this waterfall is still raw and not get a lot of touch from human. This is also the reason why the access to get to this waterfall is quiet difficult to go through.

Even though you have to give extra effort to reach this waterfall but the scenery you get when you reach the place is mesmerizing. The waterfall is surrounded by green tree and wild flower. Be careful because a lot of leech are there. There is no road sign to get there, so we suggest you to always be careful during your trip and ask local people to get valid information about the place. Don’t forget also to wear mosquito repellant to protect you from mosquito because this place is in the forest area.

Sangsang Waterfall is at the bottom of the valley with a height of 30m. The water discharge is quite large. Because of its height, you can see the beauty of thick water mist. The thick fog created by the impact of a waterfall with rocks below. If the added reflection of the sun, you will see a rainbow tinge. This scene looks exotic and beautiful. You’ll feel so comfortable enjoying the vegetation of tropical plants typical of the fertile highlands. You can also swim and feel the fresh waterfall immediately. The cold water will relax your muscles after a long walk. After playing water, rest in the surrounding gazebos. But before you go there, you should bring your own supplies because there are no food stalls around the waterfall. Spending time in a waterfall is definitely fun. But remember, save your energy for the trip back to your inn. Because you have to go through the same tiring road as in the beginning. It is recommended to leave the location of the waterfall before dark. Because there are no street lights yet.

During your tour in to sangsang waterfall, make sure your body always in the healthy condition. If you need a shot for your vitamin during your visit in Bali you can visit Unicare clinic to seeking the right IV vitamin for your body, in there you will be handled by a professional health care, and they will make sure that you will get the best treatment for your health. Even you can try to using your insurance too, they will be happy to help you to check whether your insurance will be work or not.

Unicare Clinic also provide the on call service for Bali Travelers, where they can go to your stayed place as long as its reachable for the team. Be brave to explore more place during your visit in Bali to create more good photos and don’t forget to inte

The Fishermen of Kedisan Village, Source of Delicious Balinese Sea Food

The Fishermen of Kedisan Village, Source of Delicious Balinese Sea Food

Seafood. The food of the Kings and Queens of the past. And maybe now. Actually, not only Kings and Queens, but almost anyone in between, as long as they live near the sea. Speaking about people living near the sea, as we all know, will never be complete without mentioning the fishermen; and moreover, about the village they live in.

A fishing village is a village which isusually located near a fishing ground, with an economy based on catching fish and harvesting seafood. The continents and islands around the world have coastlines totalling around 356,000 kilometres (221,000 mi). From Neolithic times, these coastlines, as well as the shorelines of inland lakes and the banks of rivers, have been punctuated with fishing villages. Most surviving fishing villages are traditional.

Coastal fishing villages are often somewhat isolated, and sited around a small natural harbour which provides safe haven for a village fleet of fishing boats. The village needs to provide a safe way of landing fish and securing boats when they are not in use. Fishing villages may operate from a beach, particularly around lakes. For example, around parts of Lake Malawi, each fishing village has its own beach. If a fisherman from outside the village lands fish on the beach, he gives some of the fish to the village headman. Village fishing boats are usually characteristic of the stretch of coast along which they operate. Traditional fishing boats evolve over time to meet the local conditions, such as the materials available locally for boat building, the type of sea conditions the boats will encounter, and the demands of the local fisheries.

Some villages move out onto the water itself, such as the floating fishing villages of Ha Long Bay in Vietnam, the stilt houses of Tai O built over tidal flats near Hong Kong, and the kelong found in waters off Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia. Other fishing villages are built on floating islands, such as the Phumdi on Loktak Lake in India, and the Uros on Lake Titicaca which borders Peru and Bolivia.

Apart from catching fish, fishing villages often support enterprises typically found in other types of village, such as village crafts, transport, schools and health clinics, housing and community water supplies. In addition, there are enterprises that are natural to fishing villages, such as fish processing and marketing, and the building and maintenance of boats. Until the 19th century, some villagers supplemented their incomes with wrecking (taking valuables from nearby shipwrecks) and smuggling.Kedisan Village is one of the villages in Tegallalang sub-district, Gianyar Regency, Bali province, Indonesia.

Kedisan village was founded around 808 AD.  At that time, the throne of a king whose center of government was on the southern edge of Lake Batur.  The king’s name is I Langlang Tanda Patih.  The king was assisted by 2 formidable warlords namely I Guna and I Gana.  As soon as the king occupied this territory, along with his warrior and retinue, he overhauled the forest around the southern outskirts of Lake Batur to expand his reign.

Among the many trees that are cut down, there is a Cempaka Putih tree that is not cut down and left just like that, because the tree has an abnormality, where the stem, leaves and shoots are white.  This cempaka tree is always decorated with dense white flowers.  Above this tree, perched a Bird Manuk Ulun which by the king was given the name Manuk Tunggal Village.  The reign of King I Langlang Tanda Patih is getting wider and wider and establishing several worship temples.

In 1117 AD, Bali was ruled by the Kadiri Kingdom.  Because there was a change of government, I Sri Budi from Buahan and I Sri Budi Sara from Abang requested that the government no longer be centered in the village of Manuk Tunggal.  The request was granted by Sri Jayaraya.  From then on, the central government of Manuk Tunggal was changed to Kedisan Village. Kedisan villagers up to 2014 (BPS projections) totaled 5,470 people.

Kedisan village is located in Tegallalang-Gianyar sub-district in the northern area of ​​Ubud, and is close to Tourism Objects namely;  Ceking Terrace, Gunung Kawi, Tirta Empul Temple.  The atmosphere of Kedisan Village is very cool and comfortable because of this can be categorized as still slightly polluted by pollution from motorcycle smoke or factory smoke, the air is pretty fresh.  In addition, most of the population of wood craftsmen who are exported to foreign countries.

The famous Ceking Terrace Tourism Object is the rice field area located in the village of Kedisan precisely Banjar Kebon, because it borders with the Tegallalang area and can be seen from the Tegallalang Region which is known as the ceking terrace.

Well that’s the village of Kedisan that is not inferior to other villages, because the village of Kedisan also has attractions such as rice fields.  The village of Kedisan now has a lot of villas sprung up in its various banjars and foreign guests / tourists come to the village of Kedisan.

Kedisan Village consists of 7 (Seven) banjars namely;

– Banjar Kedisan Kaja

– Banjar Kedisan Kelod

– Banjar Bayad

– Banjar Cebok

– Banjar Pakudui

– Banjar Kebon, and

– Banjar Tangkup

Kedisan village is known for its art, known art is the art of sculptors and Gambuh Dance, a sacred dance performed at Odalan ceremonies at the Temple.

Tourism Object of Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali is one of the tourist attractions located in Kedisan Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, Indonesia.  Tourism Objects Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali is a bustling tourist spot with tourists on weekdays and holidays.  This place is very beautiful and can give a different sensation to our daily activities.

Tourism Objects Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali has a charm of beauty that is very interesting to visit.  It is very unfortunate if you are in the city of Bangli do not visit the Tourism Object Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali which has such beauty that is second to none.

Tourism Objects Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali is very suitable to fill your holiday activities, especially during long holidays such as national holidays, or other holidays.  The beauty of Kedisan Village Tourism Object in Kintamani Bangli Bali is very good for all of you who are near or in the distance to visit the Kedisan Village Tourism Object in Bangli city.

Where is the location of Kedisan Village Tourism Object in Kintamani Bangli Bali?  as written above, the location is located in Kedisan Village, Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali, Indonesia. But if you are still confused about the location or location of the Kedisan Village Attraction in Kintamani Bangli Bali, I suggest you search by typing Kedisan Village Tourism Object in Kintamani.  Bangli Balidi, just search Google Maps.  On Google maps have been marked where the location you are looking for is.

Kedisan Village Tourism Object in Kintamani Bangli Bali is a tourist place that you must visit because the charm of its beauty is second to none.  Local residents in the Bangli area are also very welcoming to local and foreign tourists.  Tourism Object Kedisan Village in Kintamani Bangli Bali is a tourist village which is said to be the ideal place to enjoy the panorama around Lake Batur with a majestic backdrop of Mount Batur up close.

Kedisan Village presents the natural beauty of Batur from a different angle which is certainly no less beautiful.  Kedisan is also known as a fertile area because the land is mixed with volcanic ash of Mount Batur.  Therefore do not be surprised if the area which has a lot of agricultural land is inhabited by residents whose profession is farmers.  Some typical commodities of this region include shallots, cabbage, chillies, tomatoes, and others.

The wealthy potential of Lake Batur also invited a number of residents to work as fishermen.  Many freshwater fish in Lake Batur include tilapia and tilapia.  In this village there is also a pier which is a pathway to visit by boat on Lake Batur or to cross to Trunyan Village which is known for its traditional tombs, of course there will be additional costs for renting a boat.

The view of Mount Batur and Lake Batur which looks like a crescent moon combined with the natural tropical mountains and the cool air makes Kedisan Village a place worth visiting while in Kintamani or Bali.  In addition, there is a floating restaurant in this village that stretches directly to Lake Batur.

The name of Lake Batur is not as famous as Kuta, Legian, or other touristy crowded areas.  In fact, this is a place for tourists to isolate themselves and feel the traditional atmosphere of the Island of the Gods.  Lake Batur is precisely located in the District of Kintamani.  The most suitable place to enjoy this lake is Kedisan Village, which is right at the edge of the lake.  This village has several lodgings that face directly to the lake, and Mount Batur as the background.

The Mount Batur caldera is included in UNESCO’s Global Geopark Network (GGN).  This is one of the most beautiful caldera in the world, the scenery is targeted by foreign tourists. From Kedisan Village, a traveler can rent a jukung or a fishing boat to get around the lake.

If you weren’t so interested in visiting a fishermen village in the beginning, we hope that this article has somehow chnaged your mind. See you om a jukung, then! But until then, stay safe and keep your health on fleek. Happy holiday!

The Benefits of Getting the Rabies Vaccine & The Risks if You Don’t

The Benefits of Getting the Rabies Vaccine & The Risks if You Don’t

With a proper rabies vaccine injection, you can remain calm if your dog or cat is attacked or has an encounter with a wild animal.

Rabies is a very serious disease that is caused by a virus. It can be transmitted to humans through bites of infected animals which likely can be found near us such as dogs, cats, monkeys or even bats.

Since rabies can bring fatal death, it must not be underestimated and rabies vaccines for both human and animals especially pets is needed for prevention.

Rabies Vaccine for Animals

Rabies as known, is a deadly virus that can be transmitted through saliva of infected animals.

Generally, it is transmitted to humans through animal bites and also through scratches if infected animals licked their paws and nails before they scratch you.

Basically all mammals can get rabies but the most common are dogs, cats, monkeys, bats, skunks, ferrets, raccoons and even mongooses.

Rabies in pets such as dogs and cats seems to be more cautious since these two kinds of animals are most nurtured and interact with humans. If you have pets like dogs or cats or even both, it is mandatory that you give them rabies vaccines, basically rabies vaccines is important and mandatory to all animals which are potential to have and spread rabies.

The vaccine aims to prevent animals infected to spread the rabies virus. Rabies is also often referred as ‘crazy dog’ disease because once animal, in this case a dog, is infected they act far more aggressively than usual.

A rabies vaccine for your pets will keep them safe and are extremely effective when administered on a proper schedule. The veterinarian should keep records of all vaccinations and the batch numbers of the ones administered. This can help in case of a recall.

Rabies Vaccine for Humans

Rabies will become more dangerous when it hits humans because it can harm the brain and central nervous system which may lead to death.

Symptoms of rabies usually begin with fever, weakness of the entire body, headache, severe pain on parts that are bitten, anxiousness, nausea and vomiting, muscle tension to paralysis of muscles and behavioral changes of aggressiveness

Until up now, no drugs that can treat has been found yet so the focus is on the preventive measures. Prevention can only be done by washing thoroughly the bite wound with soap under running water for at least 15 minutes, having anti-rabies serum and vaccines.

Who Should Get Rabies Vaccine and When?

In general, rabies vaccine is given to humans bitten by potentially rabies animals, which is given according to the dosage and within a certain period of time. Rabies vaccines for human are different in their composition as well as how they are administrated than the vaccines for animals. Dogs and other pets with risk of rabies are given the vaccine to prevent the disease. This is not the case for the majority of humans  although human rabies infections are also fatal. It can be given without waiting to get bitten by a rabid animal as prevention.

Anyone can have rabies vaccine, but it is best given to people with high risk of rabies to protect them if they’re exposed i.e :

  • Veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine.
  • People whose activities bring them into frequent contact with rabies virus or with possibly rabid animal.
  • International travelers who are likely come to contact with animals in part of the world where rabies is common.

The pre exposure schedule for rabies vaccination is 3 doses, given at following time :

  • Dose 1, as appropriate.
  • Dose 2, seven (7) days after dose 1.
  • Dose 3, twenty one (21) or twenty eight (28) days after dose 1.

For laboratory workers or others who may be repeatedly exposed to rabies virus, periodic testing to immunity is recommended and booster doses should be given as needed while both testing and booster are not recommended for travelers.

It is also a benefit for dog and cat owners to get rabies vaccine as well because you never know whether your pets got infected and transmit their illness.

Rabies vaccine can also prevent the disease if it is given to a person after they’re exposed.

Anyone who has been bitten by a rabid animal or who otherwise may have been exposed to rabies should immediately clean the wound and go see the doctor. The doctor will determine if they need to be vaccinated.

A person who is exposed and has never been vaccinated should get 4 doses of rabies vaccine – 1 dose right away, and additional doses on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days. They should also get another shot called Rabies Immune Globulin at the same time as the first dose.

A person who has been previously vaccinated should get 2 doses of vaccine – 1 dose right away and another dose on the 3rd day while Rabies Immune Globulin is not needed.

Tell Your Doctor if You

  • Ever had a serious (life threatening) allergic to a previous dose of rabies vaccine or to any component of the vaccine. Tell the doctor if you have any severe allergies.
  • Have a weakened immune system caused by HIV/AIDS or other disease that affects the immune system/ treatment with drugs that affects the immune system like steroids / cancer or cancer treatment with radiation or drugs.

If you had a minor illnesses such as cold, you can be vaccinated. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover before you are getting a routine (non exposure) dose of rabies vaccine. If you have been exposed to a rabies virus, you should get the vaccine regardless any other illnesses you may have.

The vaccination laws are in place to increase safety and health for both pet owners and the community. The vaccine is important to the health of humans as well as animals. Overall, the rabies vaccine supplies communities with significant health benefits.

On the other side, there are people who own pet such as dogs and cats who sometimes are reluctant to do the rabies vaccine for their pets (especially dogs) for fear that vaccination will carry health risks as a side effect. What they do not know is, medical procedures including vaccine do not carry several level of risk. The risk would be greater and bigger if pets are not vaccinated, they are more easy to get infected by rabies virus.

If you are worried of the potential side effect, you can talk to your veterinarian about what is best for your pet(s). Keep in mind that veterinarians try their best to protect your pets and will not give unnecessary risks to their health care. Vaccinations are given based on numbers of factors including life style and age of your pets beside the potential of various diseases, rabies is one of them.

Reaction after pets get vaccinated are rare, generally it is just only bit of pain and swelling on where the injection took place. Also sometimes, dogs have an allergic reaction to vaccination which will appear quite quickly after a shot is given.

Rabies can be found around the world except Antarctica so travelers who may come into contact with wild or domestic animals are at risk for rabies. This includes travelers spending a lot of time outdoors like campers and cavers, travelers with occupational risks such as veterinarians and wildlife professionals and long term travelers and expatriates. Children are also at higher risk because they often play with animals, might not report bites and are more likely got bitten by the head or neck.

While in many countries the risk of rabies is similar to the US including most of Europe, Japan, Canada and Australia, in other many part of the world rabies in dogs is still a problem and access to preventive treatment may be hard. If traveling to a country where there is an increased risk of rabies, especially in dogs, rabies vaccination may be recommended before your trip so you  can worry less if you might be caught in situation such an encounter with dogs or other wild animals.

The major factor is that we have to consider is the availability of medical care in the destination. Let’s imagine if you never have a pre exposure vaccine, and you got bitten by a dog. You have to find the medical service that are equipped with vaccine and immunoglobulin. Unfortunately, for a long time immunoglobulin is only available in major cities of Southeast Asia so in some cases people who got bitten may have interrupt their trip and fly to Bangkok or Singapore to get their treatment.

So why bother to get a pre exposure vaccines if  you have to get vaccines afterwards anyway?

Because if you had a pre exposure vaccine, then if you are bitten/scratched and got infected with rabies, your body instantly recognizes the virus and start fighting it. It helps you prevent and protect your body from the disease.




A Squirrel are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents. The squirrel family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots (including woodchucks), flying squirrels, and prairie dogs amongst other rodents. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa, and were introduced by humans to Australia. The earliest known fossilized squirrels date from the Eocene period and are most closely related to the mountain beaver and to the dormouse among other living rodent families.

The word “squirrel”, first attested in 1327, comes from the Anglo-Norman esquirel which is from the Old French escurel, the reflex of a Latin word sciurus. This Latin word was borrowed from the Ancient Greek word σκίουρος, skiouros, which means shadow-tailed, referring to the bushy appendage possessed by many of its members.The native Old English word for the squirrel, ācweorna, survived only into Middle English (as aquerne) before being replaced. The Old English word is of Common Germanic origin, cognates of which are still used in other Germanic languages, including the German Eichhörnchen (diminutive of Eichhorn, which is not as frequently used), the Norwegian ikorn/ekorn, the Dutch eekhoorn, the Swedish ekorre and the Danish egern.

Squirrels are generally small animals, ranging in size from the African pygmy squirrel at 7–10 cm (2.8–3.9 in) in length and just 10 g (0.35 oz) in weight, to the Laotian giant flying squirrel at 1.08 m (3 ft 7 in) in length and the Alpine marmot, which weighs from 5 to 8 kg (11 to 18 lb). Squirrels typically have slender bodies with bushy tails and large eyes. In general, their fur is soft and silky, though much thicker in some species than others. The coat color of squirrels is highly variable between—and often even within—species.

In most squirrel species, the hind limbs are longer than the fore limbs, while all species have either four or five toes on each paw. The paws, which include an often poorly developed thumb, have soft pads on the undersides and versatile, sturdy claws for grasping and climbing. Tree squirrels, unlike most mammals, can descend a tree head-first. They do so by rotating their ankles 180 degrees, enabling the hind paws to point backward and thus grip the tree bark from the opposite direction. Squirrels live in almost every habitat, from tropical rainforest to semiarid desert, avoiding only the high polar regions and the driest of deserts. They are predominantly herbivorous, subsisting on seeds and nuts, but many will eat insects and even small vertebrates. As their large eyes indicate, squirrels have an excellent sense of vision, which is especially important for the tree-dwelling species. Many also have a good sense of touch, with vibrissae on their limbs as well as their heads.

Many juvenile squirrels die in the first year of life. Adult squirrels can have a lifespan of 5 to 10 years in the wild. Some can survive 10 to 20 years in captivity. Premature death may be caused when a nest falls from the tree, in which case the mother may abandon her young if their body temperature is not correct. Many such baby squirrels have been rescued and fostered by a professional wildlife rehabilitator until they could be safely returned to the wild, although the density of squirrel populations in many places and the constant care required by premature squirrels means that few rehabilitators are willing to spend their time doing this and such animals are routinely euthanized instead.

Because squirrels cannot digest cellulose, they must rely on foods rich in proteincarbohydrates, and fats. In temperate regions, early spring is the hardest time of year for squirrels because the nuts they buried are beginning to sprout (and thus are no longer available to eat), while many of the usual food sources have not yet become available. During these times, squirrels rely heavily on the buds of trees. Squirrels, being primarily herbivores, eat a wide variety of plants, as well as nutsseedsconifer conesfruitsfungi, and green vegetation. Some squirrels, however, also consume meat, especially when faced with hunger. Squirrels have been known to eat small birds, young snakes, and smaller rodents, as well as bird eggs and insects. Indeed, some tropical squirrel species have shifted almost entirely to a diet of insects.

Predatory behavior has been observed in various species of ground squirrels, in particular the thirteen-lined ground squirrel. For example, Bernard Bailey, a scientist in the 1920s, observed a thirteen-lined ground squirrel preying upon a young chicken. Wistrand reported seeing this same species eating a freshly killed snake. Whitaker examined the stomachs of 139 thirteen-lined ground squirrels and found bird flesh in four of the specimens and the remains of a short-tailed shrew in one; Bradley, examining the stomachs of white-tailed antelope squirrels, found at least 10% of his 609 specimens’ stomachs contained some type of vertebrate, mostly lizards and rodents. Morgart observed a white-tailed antelope squirrel capturing and eating a silky pocket mouse.

The living squirrels are divided into five subfamilies, with about 58 genera and some 285 species. The oldest squirrel fossil, Hesperopetes, dates back to the Chadronian (late Eocene, about 40–35 million years ago) and is similar to modern flying squirrels. A variety of fossil squirrels, from the latest Eocene to the Miocene, have not be assigned with certainty to any living lineage. At least some of these probably were variants of the oldest basal “protosquirrels” (in the sense that they lacked the full range of living squirrels’ autapomorphies). The distribution and diversity of such ancient and ancestral forms suggest the squirrels as a group may have originated in North America.

Apart from these sometimes little-known fossil forms, the phylogeny of the living squirrels is fairly straightforward. The three main lineages are the Ratufinae (Oriental giant squirrels), Sciurillinae and all other subfamilies. The Ratufinae contain a mere handful of living species in tropical Asia. The neotropical pygmy squirrel of tropical South America is the sole living member of the Sciurillinae. The third lineage, by far the largest, has a near-cosmopolitan distribution. This further supports the hypothesis that the common ancestor of all squirrels, living and fossil, lived in North America, as these three most ancient lineages seem to have radiated from there; if squirrels had originated in Eurasia, for example, one would expect quite ancient lineages in Africa, but African squirrels seem to be of more recent origin.

The main group of squirrels also can be split into three subgroups, which yield the remaining subfamilies. The Sciurinae contains the flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and the Sciurini, which among others contains the American tree squirrels; the former have often been considered a separate subfamily, but are now seen as a tribe of the Sciurinae. The pine squirrels (Tamiasciurus), on the other hand, are usually included with the main tree squirrel lineage, but appear to be about as distinct as the flying squirrels; hence, they are sometimes considered a distinct tribe, Tamiasciurini.

Two of the three subfamilies are of about equal size, containing between nearly 70 and 80 species each; the third is about twice as large. The Sciurinae contains arboreal (tree-living) squirrels, mainly of the Americas and to a lesser extent Eurasia. The Callosciurinae is most diverse in tropical Asia and contains squirrels that are also arboreal, but have a markedly different habitus and appear more “elegant”, an effect enhanced by their often very colorful fur. The Xerinae—the largest subfamily—are made up from the mainly terrestrial (ground-living) forms and include the large marmots and the popular prairie dogs, among others, as well as the tree squirrels of Africa; they tend to be more gregarious than other squirrels, which do not usually live together in close-knit groups.

Even though it is very unlikely to encounter a rabid squirrel, it is still a good idea to know the signs of rabies infection. The rabies virus affects the central nervous system, usually producing encephalitis or inflammation of the brain. This condition leads to the symptoms usually associated with rabies, including paralysis, blindness or sensitivity to light, loss of balance, aggression, confused behavior and mood changes. The classic symptom of excessive saliva or foaming at the mouth only sometimes occurs as a result of paralysis in the throat or jaw.

Squirrel bites almost never get infected, but you should not avoid getting medical attention for a bite. The bite that you receive from any squirrel could be very deep, and you must receive medical attention even if it will not get infected. Medical professionals prefer to be cautious when you are bitten, but rabies shouldn’t be too much of a concern unless there have been reported rabies outbreaks in your area. It is hard to account for the other animals in the wild that might bite squirrels. Rabies infested animals that bite squirrels in the wild almost never pass rabies on to squirrels. It is possible for squirrels to get rabies from a bite, but it is nearly impossible. A reported outbreak of rabies in your area likely does not apply to the squirrel that recently bit you simply because squirrels almost never get rabies.

One of the most common signs of rabies is weird or unexpected behavior. This uncharacteristic behavior usually takes one of two forms: extreme aggression or unusual docility. Aggressive animals may be vicious, snarling and biting while docile animals seem to lose their instinct to avoid humans and appear unusually calm and approachable. There are other diseases that bear similarities to rabies. In some animals, the symptoms of distemper can look like rabies. Specifically in squirrels, the roundworm brain parasite brings symptoms remarkably like those associated with rabies.

When it comes to wild animals, including squirrels, the best choice is to avoid interacting with them altogether since animals can carry rabies for months before they show symptoms. It is especially important to avoid animals that exhibit strange or unexpected behavior. Anyone who receives a risky animal bite or other exposure to rabies should contact a medical doctor or public health official immediately.

If you still want to learn more about Rabies Vaccine andduring your visit in Bali, you can go and contact Unicare Bali. They will provide you the information that you needed for Rabies Vaccine and HRIG. Also, they will provide you the vaccine when you needed it with the handling of their professional health care.


Must read, Breaking the Myths about Rabies in Indonesia

Must read, Breaking the Myths about Rabies in Indonesia

Myths about rabies and its treatment prevent people seeking proper medical care, and many of them still believe that Post Exposure Prophylaxis consist of a series of very painful injections in the abdomen.

The belief that witchdoctors, herbal extracts, gems and stones, a change in diet or religious practices can prevent rabies stops people seeking effective treatment and even they believe that one vaccination dose is sufficient or the dietary or other activities can reduce vaccine effectiveness.

Rabies is a highly fatal viral disease of the central nervous system and it is caused by Lyassavirus family type. It is primarily a zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals e.g. dogs, cats, jackals and wolves mainly.

It is prevalent in more than 150 countries and territories. 99 percent of human infection is caused by rabies in dogs and it poses a potential threat to more than 3.3 billion people which shows its high prevalence.1According to a report by WHO, worldwide human deaths from endemic canine rabies were estimated to be 55000 in a year and in India, it is estimated that, around 20,565 to 30,000 persons die due to rabies, with incidence of 1.7 per 100,000 population2.

The annual animal bite load is estimated to be 17.4 million (1.7%) and among them, around 46.9% takes antirabies vaccination as post-exposure prophylaxis.  India is very diverse country, especially for its social and cultural background.

People’s belief and practices vary by states and even districts. There is a wide range of myths and misconceptions related to different diseases/illnesses and people have great faith in it even though efficacy is unproven.

These types of socio-cultural factors and influences are in practice for centuries and many attempts have been made to change these factors responsible for misbeliefs but it often failed due to the defiant community perception.

One such belief is based on prevailing myths and misconceptions. Multiple myths are associated with the disease and they determine the post-exposure treatment seeking behavior of animal bite victims.

The rabies virus infects the body’s central nervous system, causing brain disease and death1. Early signs of rabies infection may seem like general illness, such as fever, headache and general weakness or discomfort. Shortly thereafter, however, more specific and recognizable symptoms begin to emerge1. Insomnia, anxiety, confusion, paralysis, hyper salivation, difficulty swallowing, agitation and hydrophobia are among the most common symptoms1.

Within days of these symptoms appearing, death is likely to occur. Despite the thorough knowledge we currently possess about the virus, there is a vast amount of misinformation that has spread throughout communities. It is the goal of this post to quickly clarify some of these misconceptions in order to ensure the safety of you, your family, and your pets.

The following 7 rabies myths in Indonesia

  1. Many people believe that an animal who is bitten by another animal with rabies doesn’t have the disease until the infection spreads to the brain.

The reality is that your pet would have rabies from the moment of contact with an infected animal. The disease has an incubation period ranging from 10 to 60 days. Not only does the infection reach the brain in that time, it can also spread to your pet’s central nervous system and muscle tissues.

The location and severity of the bite can affect the length of the incubation period and where the infection spreads.

Unfortunately, a bite from an animal infected with rabies is not the only way your pet can acquire it. The other animal can transmit rabies just by having saliva on the claws and scratching your pet. Many pet owners are unaware of this and continue to believe a direct bite is the only method of transmission.

  1. Another common fallacy people believe about rabies is that stray dogs are the only carriers. Any unvaccinated pet can potentially be a carrier, as can wild animals such as foxes, wolves, and racoons.
  2. The media often portrays a dog with rabies foaming at the mouth, which means some people are only familiar with this symptom. This is a late-stage rabies symptom and animals this far advanced need to be euthanized for their comfort and the safety of others. A domestic pet infected with rabies will show other symptoms long before this. The most common ones include abrupt changes in behavior, lack of appetite, seizures, disorientation, and paralysis in the hind legs.
  3. Indoor cats don’t need the rabies vaccine. While your kitty may never step outside your house, she still need to be vaccinated against rabies. There’s still the risk that she could or that a rabid animal could escape to the great outdoor get into your home.

Suppose you have to give her up or she escapes and she winds up in a shelter? There are so many possible scenarios that could make your cat at risk for rabies that it’s much safer to get her vaccinated. Plus, many cities and states require that cats be vaccinated against rabies. And if your unvaccinated cat were to bite a guest in your house, she will most likely need to be quarantined.

  1. Once you’re exposed to rabies, there’s nothing you can do to reduce the risk of infection. If you are bitten by a suspected rabid animal, wash the wound immediately with soap and water for 15 minutes. You’ll also need immediate medical attention and may receive post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a course of vaccines that help prevent the symptoms of rabies in people.
  2. Rabies is only transmitted through an animal bite. Rabies is spread through an infected animal’s saliva can be transmitted through a bite or more rarely, transmitted when scratches, abrasions, open wounds or mucous membranes of the mouth or oral cavity come into contact with a rabid animal’s saliva or brain tissue.

While you should never do this, petting a suspected wild animal will not expose you to rabies (unless, of course, the animal bites you). Neither will contacting a rabid animal’s feces, urine or blood. Rabies is mostly transmitted through saliva, although rarely, some people may be exposed to rabies by contact with a rabid animal’s brain tissue, inhalation of aerosolized rabies viruses or through organ transplants from an infected person.

  1. If an animal is foaming at the mouth, it definitely has rabies. While excessive drooling is one of the signs of rabies, it can also be a sign of a number of other health issues such as heatstroke, dental problems and anxiety. Plus,certain dog breeds like Mastiffs, Bloodhounds and Saint Bernards tend to drool a lot anyway.

Rabies virus is transmitted through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with saliva or brain/nervous system tissue from an infected animal.

People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. It is also possible, but rare, for people to get rabies from non-bite exposures, which can include scratches, abrasions, or open wounds that are exposed to saliva or other potentially infectious material from a rabid animal. Other types of contact, such as petting a rabid animal or contact with the blood, urine or feces of a rabid animal, are not associated with risk for infection and are not considered to be exposures of concern for rabies.

Other modes of transmission—aside from bites and scratches—are uncommon. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is one potential non-bite route of exposure, but except for laboratory workers, most people won’t encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. Rabies transmission through corneal and solid organ transplants have been recorded, but they are also very rare.

There have only been two known solid organ donor with rabies in the United States since 2008. Many organ procurement organizations have added a screening question about rabies exposure to their procedures for evaluating the suitability of each donor.

Bite and non-bite exposures from an infected person could theoretically transmit rabies, but no such cases have been documented. Casual contact, such as touching a person with rabies or contact with non-infectious fluid or tissue (urine, blood, feces), is not associated with risk for infection. Contact with someone who is receiving rabies vaccination does not constitute rabies exposure, does not pose a risk for infection, and does not require postexposure prophylaxis.

Rabies virus becomes noninfectious when it dries out and when it is exposed to sunlight. Different environmental conditions affect the rate at which the virus becomes inactive, but in general, if the material containing the virus is dry, the virus can be considered noninfectious.